Heart Anatomy - Know Your Heart Better Than Before...
1. Right Coronary
2. Chordae Tendineae
3. Left Circumflex
4. Pulmonary Valve
5. Inferior Vena Cava
7. Pulmonary Artery
8. Pulmonary Vein
9. Right Atrium
10. Right Ventricle
11. Left Atrium
12. Left Ventricle
13. Papillary Muscles
14. Left Anterior Descending
15. Tricuspid Valve
16. Mitral Valve
17. Superior Vena Cava
The heart must get constant supply of oxygen and nutrients as it is mainly made of cardiac muscle tissue that continuously contracts and relaxes. The coronary arteries are basically the network of blood vessels that carry oxygen- and nutrient-rich blood to the cardiac muscle tissue. The blood that leaves the left ventricle exits through the aorta that is the body’s main artery. The left and right coronary arteries, emerge from the beginning of the aorta, near the top of the heart.
Superior Vena Cava
The superior vena cava is one of the two main veins that carry de-oxygenated blood from the body to the heart. Veins from the head and upper body feed into the superior vena cava, which empties into the right atrium of the heart.
Inferior Vena Cava
The inferior vena cava is one of the two main veins that brings de-oxygenated blood from the body to the heart. Veins from the legs and lower torso feed into the inferior vena cava, which empties into the right atrium of the heart.
The pulmonary artery is that vessel which carries de-oxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs. Most people believe that all the arteries carry oxygen-rich blood which is not the fact. To be more appropriate, it can be said that arteries are vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
The pulmonary vein transports oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium. They are commonly mistaken to be carrying de-oxygenated blood. While in fact, it is more appropriate to say that they are vessels carrying blood to the heart.
The function of the tricuspid valve is to separate the right atrium from the right ventricle. It opens to let the de-oxygenated blood to flow into the right ventricle which was collected in the right atrium. It closes as the right ventricle contracts, preventing blood from returning to the right atrium; thereby, forcing it to exit through the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary artery.
The purpose of the mitral valve is to separate left atrium from the left ventricle. When it opens, it allows oxygenated blood collected in the left atrium to flow into the left ventricle. When the left ventricle contracts, it closes and prevents blood from returning to the left atrium; thereby, forcing it to exit through the aortic valve into the aorta.
The pulmonary valve parts the right ventricle from the pulmonary artery. It opens when the ventricles contracts and allows the de-oxygenated blood collected in the right ventricle to flow to the lungs. It contracts so that the blood does not return to the heart.
The aortic valve separates the left ventricle from the aorta. It opens as the ventricles contract and allows the oxygenated blood to flow throughout the body that was collected in the left ventricle. It closes as the ventricles relax, preventing blood from returning to the heart.
Diagnostic tests and procedures
The below mentioned diagnostic test are required to diagnose a heart disorder:-
Electrocardiograph test : Use of electrocardiogram to assess the electrical activity produced by the heart at rest and with activity.
Treadmill Test : a test performed to assess the energy level and tenacity of the heart.
Nuclear Imaging : a method of producing images by detecting radiation from different parts of the body after the administration of a radioactive tracer material.
Ultrasound Test : graphic images of the heart’s structures, pumping action, and direction of blood flow is created by using ultrasound or high frequency sound wave.
Radiographic Test : X-ray machines or very high tech machines (CT, MRI) are used to produce images of the internal structures of the chest
Testing: catheters are inserted into the blood vessels of the heart to get a closer picture of the coronary arteries or to stimulate and test the electrical system of the heart.
Laboratory Test: It includes a number of blood tests used to diagnose and monitor treatment for heart disease.
Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) Surgery
It is a surgical procedure performed to bypass one or more blocked coronary arteries by a blood vessel graft to return normal blood flow to the heart. These grafts typically come from the patient’s own arteries and veins located in the chest (thoracic), leg (saphenous) or arm (radial). The graft goes around the blocked artery (or arteries) to create new pathways for oxygen-rich blood to flow to the heart.
The procedure is done to enable the patient to resume a normal lifestyle, relieve symptoms of coronary artery disease(including angina), and to lower the risk of a heart attack or other heart problems.
It is done to repair or replace a patient’s diseased heart valves. Great advances and improvements have been observed in the surgical treatment of diseased heart valves by heart valve surgery over the past few years. The diagnostic tests the patient’s heart, doctor orders help to identify the location, type and extent of your valve disease. The cardiologist, surgeon, and the patient decide what type of heart valve surgery procedure will be best on the basis of these tests, the structure of your heart, your age, and your lifestyle.
Cardiologists and heart surgeons have been looking for new and better techniques to treat heart and vascular disease in less invasive ways. With the passage of time many new percutaneous procedures are evolving that are likely to provide non-surgical treatment options for patients in the future. The percutaneous approaches avoid the large incision required for traditional heart or vascular surgery and rather use special catheters and devices for the treatment of the problem through one or more small puncture sites through the skin. In the Endoscopic approaches one or more small puncture sites and a thin video instrument with a small camera at the tip are used. They are a subset of percutaneous approaches. With the use of this scope, the surgeon gets a close-up view of the surgical area as the scope diffuses an image of the internal organs on a video monitor while he performs the surgery. The percutaneous procedures are very beneficial for patients as they mean very small incisions and a much quicker recovery time. In some case where the patient cannot get the conventional surgery done due to poor heart function or additional medical problems, these procedures can be used.
Ascending aorta, aortic arch, descending aorta, thoracoabdominal repairs, thoracic and abdominal aorta endovascular stent graft procedures are all performed by a multidisciplinary surgical team.
Required Changes in Lifestyle
The pain, sickness and other symptoms gets decreased after every heart surgery. The patient can bring down the risk factors by improving their lifestyle and taking medications as prescribed and following your doctor’s recommendations to prevention future disease. Lifestyle changes include: