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Kidney Transplant

Kidney Transplant

In India alone, around 3200 kidney transplants are done every year and the number could be higher only if there were more kidneys available. IHM offer affordable and reliable kidney transplant and the success rateis far better than any other type of organ transplants.

Once the patient get a kidney transplant, they no more need dialysis as long as the transplant continues to work well. Almost all kidney functions are performed by the transplant which ensures that the patient lives a normal life afterwards. In most cases the patient feels more energetic than before. However, they may have to follow a good diet and keep a check on certain eating habits to protect the transplant.

Procedure

Contrary to what people commonly believe, the original kidney is not removed in most cases. Though it is barely functioning yet it is kept intact to avoid surgical morbidities. The transplant kidney is usually placed in a different part from the original kidney’s location. It is often placed in the iliac fossa, so it is often necessary to us a different blood supply:

  • The renal artery of the kidney is connected to the external iliac artery in the recipient. In the donor it is branching from abdominal aorta.
  • The renal vein of the new kidney is later connected to the external iliac vein in the recipient which drains to the inferior vena cava in the donor.

Post Operation

On an average the transplant goes on five hours. The kidney of the donor is positioned in the lower abdomen and its blood vessels are connected to arteries and veins in the recipient’s body. Once the process is over, blood is allowed to flow through the kidney again. In the final step, ureter from the donor kidney is connected to the bladder. Soon after, the kidney starts to produce urine.

In most of the cases the transplant kidney begins to function right after the operation. However, it really depends on the quality of the kidney. In cases where kidney is donated by alive person, the kidney takes up to 3 to 5 days to begin functioning normally whereas the duration may stretch to 7 to 15 days in case of cadaveric donations. The recipient is usually admitted in hospital for 4 to 7 days.  In case of complications, additional medications (diuretics) may be administered to help the kidney produce urine.

Immunosuppressant drugs are used to suppress the immune system from rejecting the donor kidney. These medicines are mostly prescribed for the rest of the recipient’s life. After the operation, blood vessels are closely monitored. In case the patient seems to have declining renal function, a biopsy may be performed to decide if the cause is rejection or cyclosporine intoxication.


Post Operation Diet

Grapefruit is one of the most harmful food products for patients after kidney transplant. It not only decreases the proper metabolism of many drugs but also nullifies the effect of many critical drugs which are necessarily given to the patient after kidney transplants. In order to avoid such consequences, the patients must avoid grapefruit products and some other citrus products.

In 10-25% cases, acute rejection occurs within 60 days of kidney transplant. Acute rejection sometimes requires additional treatment and medication adjustments while it may not necessarily mean loss of the organ.


Complications

Problems after a transplant may include:

  • Transplant rejection (hyperacute, acute or chronic).
  • immunosuppressant drugs are given to decrease risk of rejection, however they may cause Infections and sepsis
  • Lymphoproliferativedisorder (a form of lymphoma due to the immune suppressants) after transplant.
  • Imbalances in electrolytes including calcium and phosphate which cancasuemny problems including bone issues.
  • Medications may result in other side-effects such as gastrointestinal inflammation and ulceration of the stomach and esophagus, hirsutism (excessive hair growth in a male-pattern distribution),hair loss, obesity, acne, diabetes mellitus type 2, hypercholesterolemia, and others.

The donated kidney can function well for over ten to fifteen years. A patient may go for a second transplant in case the transplant fails. The patient may have to get back to to dialysis for some intermediary time.


Arrangement of donor for transplants:-

We at MTI do not have the provision to provide a living donor for transplantation. The recipient will have to arrange a donor since the human organs transplant acts are very strict. Monetary acceptance is illegal and not at all accepted in the entire process of donation.

Therefore, it is solely the patient’s responsibility to arrange for a donor who is willing to donate the organ voluntarily. The donor should be the patient’s relatives preferably with in first blood relation.

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