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Cancer Treatments

Cancer Treatments

There many kind of Cancer of different organs. The below are few common cancers which are seen in humans.

Bladder Cancer

The bladder is a hollow organ in the lower part of the abdomen that stores urine until it is passed out of the body.

The most common type of bladder cancer is transitional cell carcinoma, which begins in urothelial cells that line the inside of the bladder. Urothelial cells are transitional cells, which are able to change shape and stretch when the bladder is full. This type of cancer is also called urothelial carcinoma. Other types of bladder cancer include squamous cell carcinoma (cancer that begins in thin, flat cells lining the bladder) and adenocarcinoma (cancer that begins in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids).

People who smoke have an increased risk of bladder cancer. Being exposed to certain chemicals and having chronic bladder infections can also increase the risk of bladder cancer.

The most common sign of bladder cancer is blood in the urine. Bladder cancer is often diagnosed at an early stage, when the cancer is easier to treat.


Breast Cancer

The breast is made up of glands called lobules that can make milk and thin tubes called ducts that carry the milk from the lobules to the nipple. Breast tissue also contains fat and connective tissue, lymph nodes, and blood vessels.

The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma, which begins in the cells of the ducts. Breast cancer can also begin in the cells of the lobules and in other tissues in the breast. Invasive breast cancer is breast cancer that has spread from where it began in the ducts or lobules to surrounding tissue.

In the U.S., breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women after skin cancer. It can occur in both men and women, but it is very rare in men. Each year there are about 2,300 new cases of breast cancer in men and about 230,000 new cases in women


Leukemia

Leukemia is cancer of the blood cells. Most blood cells form in the bone marrow. In leukemia, cancerous blood cells form and crowd out the healthy blood cells in the bone marrow.

The type of leukemia depends on the type of blood cell that has become cancerous. For example, acute lymphoblastic leukemia is a cancer of the lymphoblasts (white blood cells that fight infection). White blood cells are the most common type of blood cell to become cancer. But red blood cells (cells that carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body) and platelets (cells that clot the blood) may also become cancer.

Leukemia occurs most often in adults older than 55 years, and it is the most common cancer in children younger than 15 years.

Leukemia is either acute or chronic. Acute leukemia is a fast-growing cancer that usually gets worse quickly. Chronic leukemia is a slower-growing cancer that gets worse slowly over time. The treatment and prognosis for leukemia depend on the type of blood cell affected and whether the leukemia is acute or chronic. Chemotherapy is often used to treat leukemia.


Lymphoma

Lymphoma is cancer that begins in cells of the lymph system. The lymph system is part of the immune system, which helps the body fight infection and disease. Because lymph tissue is found all through the body, lymphoma can begin almost anywhere.

The two main types of lymphoma are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). These can occur in both children and adults.

Most people with Hodgkin lymphoma have the classic type. With this type, there are large, abnormal lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the lymph nodes called Reed-Sternberg cells. Hodgkin lymphoma can usually be cured. There are many different types of NHL that form from different types of white blood cells (B-cells, T-cells, NK cells). Most types of NHL form from B-cells. NHL may be indolent (slow-growing) or aggressive (fast-growing). The most common types of NHL in adults are diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, which is usually aggressive, and follicular lymphoma, which is usually indolent.

Mycosis fungoides and the Sézary syndrome are types of NHL that start in white blood cells in the skin. Primary central nervous system lymphoma is a rare type of NHL that starts in white blood cells in the brain, spinal cord, or eye. The treatment and the chance of a cure depend on the stage and the type of lymphoma.


Colon Cancer

Colorectal cancer is cancer that starts in the colon or rectum. The colon and the rectum are parts of the large intestine, which is the lower part of the body’s digestive system. During digestion, food moves through the stomach and small intestine into the colon. The colon absorbs water and nutrients from the food and stores waste matter (stool). Stool moves from the colon into the rectum before it leaves the body.

Most colorectal cancers are adenocarcinomas (cancers that begin in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids). Colorectal cancer often begins as a growth called a polyp, which may form on the inner wall of the colon or rectum. Some polyps become cancer over time. Finding and removing polyps can prevent colorectal cancer.

Colorectal cancer is the third most common type of cancer in men and women in the United States. Deaths from colorectal cancer have decreased with the use of colonoscopies and fecal occult blood tests, which check for blood in the stool.


Lung Cancer

The lungs are a pair of cone-shaped breathing organs inside the chest. The lungs bring oxygen into the body when breathing in and send carbon dioxide out of the body when breathing out. Each lung has sections called lobes. Two tubes called bronchi lead from the trachea (windpipe) to the lungs.

The two main types of lung cancer are non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. The types are based on the way the cells look under a microscope. Non-small cell lung cancer is much more common than small cell lung cancer.

Tobacco smoking is the most common cause of lung cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer in the U.S. and the number of deaths from lung cancer in women is increasing.For most patients with lung cancer, current treatments do not cure the cancer.


Uterine Cancer

The uterus is a hollow, muscular organ where a fetus grows. Uterine cancer can start in different parts of the uterus. Most uterine cancers start in the endometrium (the inner lining of the uterus). This is called endometrial cancer. Most endometrial cancers are adenocarcinomas (cancers that begin in cells that make mucus and other fluids).

Uterine sarcoma is an uncommon form of uterine cancer that forms in the muscle and tissue that support the uterus.

Obesity, certain inherited conditions, and taking estrogen alone (without progesterone) can increase the risk of endometrial cancer. Radiation therapy to the pelvis can increase the risk of uterine sarcoma. Taking tamoxifen for breast cancer can increase the risk of both endometrial cancer and uterine sarcoma.

The most common sign of endometrial cancer is unusual vaginal bleeding. Endometrial cancer can usually be cured. Uterine sarcoma is harder to cure.


Prostate Cancer

The prostate gland makes fluid that forms part of semen. The prostate lies just below the bladder in front of the rectum. It surrounds the urethra (the tube that carries urine and semen through the penis and out of the body).

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the United States, after skin cancer. It is the second leading cause of death from cancer in men. Prostate cancer occurs more often in African-American men than in white men. African-American men with prostate cancer are more likely to die from the disease than white men with prostate cancer.

Almost all prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas (cancers that begin in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids). Prostate cancer often has no early symptoms. Advanced prostate cancer can cause men to urinate more often or have a weaker flow of urine, but these symptoms can also be caused by benign prostate conditions.

Prostate cancer usually grows very slowly. Most men with prostate cancer are older than 65 years and do not die from the disease. Finding and treating prostate cancer before symptoms occur may not improve health or help you live longer. Talk to your doctor about your risk of prostate cancer and whether you need screening tests


Treatments:-

There are many types of cancer treatment. The types of treatment that you receive will depend on the type of cancer you have and how advanced it is. The main types of cancer treatment include:

Surgery

Cryosurgery

Cryosurgery is a type of treatment in which extreme cold produced by liquid nitrogen or argon gas is used to destroy abnormal tissue.Cryosurgery may be used to treat early-stage skin cancer, retinoblastoma, and precancerous growths on the skin and cervix. Cryosurgery is also called cryotherapy.

Lasers

This is a type of treatment in which powerful beams of light are used to cut through tissue. Lasers can focus very accurately on tiny areas, so they can be used for precise surgeries. Lasers can also be used to shrink or destroy tumors or growths that might turn into cancer. Lasers are most often used to treat tumors on the surface of the body or on the inside lining of internal organs. Examples include basal cell carcinoma, cervical changes that might turn into cancer, and cervical, vaginal, esophageal, and non-small cell lung cancer.

Hyperthermia

Hyperthermia is a type of treatment in which small areas of body tissue are exposed to high temperatures. The high heat can damage and kill cancer cells or make them more sensitive to radiation and certain chemotherapy drugs. Radiofrequency ablation is one type of hyperthermia that uses high-energy radio waves to generate heat. Hyperthermia is not widely available and is being studied in clinical trials.

Photodynamic Therapy

Photodynamic therapy is a type of treatment that uses drugs which react to a certain type of light. When the tumor is exposed to this light, these drugs become active and kill nearby cancer cells.


Radiation Therapy

Image-guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT)

Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is the use of imaging during radiation therapy to improve the precision and accuracy of treatment delivery. IGRT is used to treat tumors in areas of the body that move, such as the lungs. Radiation therapy machines are equipped with imaging technology to allow your doctor to image the tumor before and during treatment. By comparing these images to the reference images taken during simulation, the patient’s position and/or the radiation beams may be adjusted to more precisely target the radiation dose to the tumor. Some IGRT procedures may use fiducial markers, electromagnetic transponders or colored ink tattoos on the skin to help align and target the radiation equipment.

If you are to undergo IGRT, your doctor will likely use CT scanning to conduct a treatment simulation session. Other imaging procedures may be used to help determine the exact shape and location of your tumor, and a special device may be created to help you maintain the same exact position during each treatment. Your doctor will give you specific instructions based on the type of exam being performed.

Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT)

Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) uses linear accelerators to safely and painlessly deliver precise radiation doses to a tumor while minimizing the dose to surrounding normal tissue.

Your radiation oncologist will speak with you to determine whether IMRT is the most appropriate treatment for you. If so, your doctor will perform a physical exam and use CT scanning to conduct a treatment simulation session. Other imaging procedures may be used to help determine the exact shape and location of your tumor, and a special device may be created to help you maintain the same exact position during each treatment. Your doctor will give you specific instructions based on the type of exam being performed.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy works by stopping or slowing the growth of cancer cells, which grow and divide quickly. Chemotherapy is used to:

Treat Cancer

Chemotherapy can be used to cure cancer, lessen the chance it will return, or stop or slow its growth.

Ease Cancer Symptoms

Chemotherapy can be used to shrink tumors that are causing pain and other problems.

When used with other treatments, chemotherapy can:

Make a tumor smaller before surgery or radiation therapy. This is called neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Destroy cancer cells that may remain after treatment with surgery or radiation therapy. This is called adjuvant chemotherapy.

Help other treatments work better.

Kill cancer cells that have returned or spread to other parts of your body.


Stem Cell Transplant

Stem cell transplants are procedures that restore blood-forming stem cells in people who have had their destroyed by the very high doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy that are used to treat certain cancers. Blood-forming stem cells are important because they grow into different types of bloodcells. The main types of blood cells are:

  • White blood cells, which are part of your immune system and help your body fight infection
  • Red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout your body
  • Platelets, which help the blood clot

Type of Transplants

  • Autologous, which means the stem cells come from you, the patient
  • Allogeneic, which means the stem cells come from someone else. The donor may be a blood relative but can also be someone who is not related.
  • Syngeneic, which means the stem cells come from your identical twin, if you have one

Precision Medicine

Precision medicine is an approach to patient care that allows doctors to select treatments that are most likely to help patients based on a genetic understanding of their disease. This may also be called personalized medicine. The idea of precision medicine is not new, but recent advances in science and technology have helped speed up the pace of this area of research.

Some people with cancer will have only one treatment. But most people have a combination of treatments, such as surgery with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. When you need treatment for cancer, you have a lot to learn and think about. It is normal to feel overwhelmed and confused. But, talking with your doctor and learning about the types of treatment you may have can help you feel more in control.

Other Treatments are Immunotherapy, Hormone Therapy and Targeted Therapy. All the cancer treatments have some type of Side effects. If the cancer is detected earlier, it’s easier to treat and cure. Cancer can come back any time and can spread in other organs which is called Metastasis. For that the patients needs to be under strict observation and regular follow up with their treating doctors.

The Anatomy of the Knee Joint

Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that allows an orthopedic surgeon to see and operate inside a joint using a device called an arthroscope. The arthroscope is inserted through very small incisions in the skin.

  • Lenses inside the arthroscope magnify images from inside a joint up to 30 times their normal size.
  • These images are transmitted to a TV monitor, giving the orthopedic surgeon an exceptionally clear view of the inside of a joint.
  • From this view, the surgeon can then operate inside the joint using small instruments inserted through separate tiny incisions. 

Knee Arthroscopy

Facts about arthroscopy of the knee:

  • More than 1.5 million knee arthroscopies are performed in the U.S. each year.
  • In the U.S., more than 11.2 million visits are made to physicians’ offices because of a knee problem.
  • Arthroscopy is one of the most common orthopedic procedures in the U.S.
  • Millions of people have recovered and returned to work following a knee injury much sooner thanks to arthroscopy.
  • Modern or contemporary arthroscopy of the knee was first performed in the late 1960s.

Preparing For Arthroscopy

Depending on your age, certain preoperative tests will be arranged, such as blood tests, urine tests, chest x-ray, and EKG.

  • For an ACL reconstruction, leg measurements may be taken to order a knee brace. Your rehabilitation program will be discussed in detail with you.
  • You may meet the anesthesiologist, who may offer you a choice of anesthesia:

    If you choose a general anesthetic, you will be asleep during the procedure.

    If you choose an epidural, an injection is given into the back that numbs the lower half of the body. This wears off a             couple of hours after surgery.

    If you chose a local anesthetic, you will receive injections of a local painkiller in the knee and surrounding areas.

If you have an epidural or local anesthesia, you can often watch the whole operation on the television monitor as seen through the arthroscope. 


The Operation

After the chosen anesthetic has been administered, the leg is thoroughly cleaned, usually with an iodine-based solution. A tourniquet may be placed around the thigh.

A tiny incision is made on the outer side of the knee about level with the lower end of the knee cap. The arthroscope is then gently introduced into the knee, so the surgeon can see the inside of the knee on the TV monitor.

Another small incision is then made on the inner side of the knee to allow the surgeon to insert specialized instruments.

  • If the meniscus is torn: the torn flap or segment is carefully trimmed away, leaving a smooth edge. However, if the tear is on the outer side of the meniscus, where the blood supply is better, it is possible to repair the tear using specialized sutures.
  • If the anterior cruciate ligament is completely torn: an additional two-inch incision will be required to remove either the patella tendon or hamstring tendon to create a new cruciate ligament. Tunnels are drilled in the tibia and femur through which the new ligament is passed. The ligament is then anchored firmly to the bone, usually with screws at either end.
  • If a loose body is found, treatment may vary. If it is truly loose and floating around the joint, it can be easily removed. If it is still partially attached, it can be gently pushed back into place and held with a specialized screw.
  • If the problem is arthritis or chondromalacia, the roughened surface may be smoothed with power instruments. The surgeon will also remove any bits of bone or
  • Cartilage floating in the joint. 

Recovering after Arthroscopy

  • You will usually have recovered enough to be driven home a few hours after the surgery.
  • You may or may not be allowed to put weight on your knee immediately after surgery, depending on what was done to your knee. A physical therapist will help you get mobile with crutches before going home.
  • Expect some swelling and discomfort in the knee for a few days. You will be given a prescription for pain medication and an anti-inflammatory drug to deal with the swelling.

Caring For the Incision

Sutures may or may not have been used to close the wounds. Your doctor will instruct you when you may remove the bandage, usually within a day or two (depending on the procedure), leaving smaller dressings over the actual incisions.

Our doctor will let you know how long to wait before you can get your knee wet, but in general, do not get your knee wet until the sutures are removed. You will need to cover the leg with a large plastic bag when bathing, to keep the incision dry for the first week to 10 days. 


Shoulder Arthroscopy

Heel Slides (Knee Flexion)

Shoulder pain arises from the soft tissues (muscles, ligaments, and tendons) more often than from the bones. You need not have injured your shoulder. Pain can be caused by inflammation of the tendons (tendinitis), particularly the rotator cuff tendons and the biceps tendon; a tear of the rotator cuff due to wear and tear; bursitis (which is an inflammation of the bursa, the sac that separates some of the muscle layers and allows the tendons to glide smoothly); or other soft tissue problems as well as arthritis of the joint.

Facts about Shoulder Injuries

  • The shoulder is the most flexible joint in the body, but this flexibility also makes it susceptible to instability and injury.
  • According to the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, about six million people each year go to the doctor for shoulder pain, dislocation, or other shoulder problems.
  • Each year, shoulder problems account for about 1.5 million visits to orthopedic surgeons (physicians who specialize in disorders of the bones, muscles, and related structures).
  • Most problems in the shoulder involve the muscles, ligaments, and tendons rather than bones.
  • Shoulder injuries can be caused by sports activities that involve excessive overhead motion (such as swimming, tennis, and pitching). But they also can be the result of everyday activities such as painting, hanging curtains, and gardening.
  • The arthroscope is the most accurate diagnostic tool for examining shoulder problems.

Recovery from arthroscopic surgery is generally faster and less painful than recovery from traditional open surgery.

The shoulder is the most versatile joint in the human body. It has the widest range of motion, which means it can move in more directions than any other joint. The shoulder’s versatility enables us to retrieve soup cans from the cupboard, hammer nails, swing golf clubs, roll bowling balls, and perform thousands of other activities.

The shoulder’s flexibility is due to its unique structure. Like the hip, the main joint of the shoulder is a "ball-and-socket" joint. A "ball" at the top of the upper arm bone (the humerus) fits neatly into a "socket," called the glenoid, which is part of the shoulder blade (scapula).

But unlike the hip joint - where the ball sits in a deep, well-protected socket - the shoulder socket is very shallow. The surrounding ligaments, and muscles and tendons that move the shoulder joint, help to keep it stable.

Because of this anatomy, the shoulder is the most frequently dislocated major joint in the body. It’s also prone to a variety of other injuries and chronic problems that can be painful and hinder a person’s ability to perform ordinary tasks.

Three bones come together to form the shoulder. These bones are the collarbone (clavicle), the shoulder blade (scapula), and the upper arm bone (humerus). The acromion, a part of the shoulder blade, forms the top of the shoulder.

The shoulder is made up of four separate joints. The interrelated action of these four joints allows the complex and extremely wide range of movements of the shoulder.

  • The ball-and-socket joint, or glenohumeral joint, is the main joint of the shoulder.
  • The joint between the acromion (part of the shoulder blade) and the collarbone (the clavicle), is called the AC joint, or acriomio-clavicular joint. Arthritis of the shoulder most commonly affects this particular joint.
  • The junction between the collarbone and breastbone (the sternum), in the front of the chest, is called the sterno-clavicular joint. This joint anchors the shoulder to the chest wall.
  • The fourth joint of the shoulder is between the shoulder blade and the back of five of the upper ribs, and is called the scapulo-thoracic joint. This joint provides added movement of the shoulder toward the front and back of the body.

The shallow socket of the shoulder is given some extra depth by a structure called the labrum, which is a thickening of tissue that attaches to and surrounds the socket. Damage to this structure from a shoulder dislocation often results in instability of the shoulder.

The ball-and-socket joint (glenohumeral joint) is reinforced and assisted in its movement by the rotator cuff, a combination of four tendons and associated muscles. The muscles arise on various parts of the shoulder blade, and their tendons attach to the upper arm bone. (Tendons are stringy tissues that attach muscle to bone.) One of the tendons of the biceps muscle runs through the shoulder joint and further helps to stabilize the joint.

The term "rotator cuff" refers to the group of four tendons that attach four shoulder muscles to the bone of the upper arm. Ordinarily, the rotator cuff moves freely in the space between the top of the upper arm and the upper part of the shoulder blade (the acromion), which overhangs the rotator cuff. In some people, for reasons not always known, this space is inadequate to allow the normal smooth gliding movements of the rotator cuff as it moves the arm. So when the arm is raised, the rotator cuff may be squeezed between the two bones.

Between the rotator cuff and the bony arch of the acromion lie two fluid-filled sacs called bursae. They protect the rotator cuff and allow smooth movement of the tendons over the bone.

Many shoulder problems are caused by injuries to the rotator cuff. If a tendon becomes inflamed or is partially torn, it can cause pain and limit shoulder movement. If a rotator cuff tendon tears completely, the corresponding muscle can no longer properly affect movement of the arm. This type of injury usually causes limitations in shoulder movement as a result of pain and weakness.

The Role of Shoulder Arthroscopy

Arthroscopy can be used to diagnose a problem in the shoulder when tests don’t give a definite answer as to what’s causing the problem. More commonly, however, it is used to treat and correct a number of problems in the shoulder, including:

  • Shoulder dislocations and instability
  • Torn rotator cuff
  • Impingement syndrome (tendinitis and bursitis)
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Loose bodies

Cancer Treatment and Support

  • Brain Tumor
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
  • Colon Cancer
  • EosinophilicLeukemia
  • Liver Cancer
  • Breast Cancer
  • Cancer Surgery
  • Chemotherapy
  • Lung Cancer
  • Radiation Therapy
  • T-Cell Leukemia
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Bone Cancer
  • Brain Stem Gliomas
  • Targeted Therapy
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